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Em wales

em wales

Juni Wales steht erstmals in seiner Geschichte in einem EM-Viertelfinale. Dahinter steckt eine Entschlossenheit, die jeden Gegner einschüchtert. Juni Fußball-EM Wales begeistert seine Fans. Der Jubel der walisischen Fans in Toulouse kannte am Montagabend keine Grenzen. Im letzten Spiel. 1. Juli Die nächste Sensation ist perfekt: Zum ersten Mal ist Wales bei einer EM dabei und schlägt nach einer starken Vorstellung Belgien im.

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In der Qualifikation an Rumänien gescheitert, das sich ebenfalls nicht für die Endrunde qualifizieren konnte. Im Hintergrund schwoll der Jubel im immer noch prall gefüllten Fanblock der Waliser noch einmal auf ohrenbetäubendes Niveau an. Nach einer Ecke von Ramsey köpfte Ashley Williams das verdiente 1: In der Qualifikation an Italien und Dänemark gescheitert. Sie qualifizierten sich mit einem hochverdienten 3: Als Sieger wären sie im Finale auf Gastgeber Frankreich getroffen.

The lowest incidences were reported in the more densely populated areas of Gwent 1. Of the patients, One third of the patients reported vomiting The highest proportion of asymptomatic cases was in the to year-old age group 18 [ The length of stay, first recorded in , was from 1 to 71 days mode 1 day, median 4.

The mean annual proportion of index cases hospitalized was From through , only one person, an year-old woman with diarrhea, died as a result of the infection.

Three hundred seventy-eight Of these, 62 Isolates belonged to at least 19 phage types PT. The two most common PT were PT2 isolates [ PT2 was the most common type in each year, with the exception of , when PT49 predominated.

PT and verotoxin type were linked: No relationship was found between the major PTs and clinical symptoms.

Foreign travel in the week before onset of symptoms was reported by 37 8. Population-based surveillance of VTEC O in Wales has been undertaken since and is the most complete in the world.

There is no evidence that pathology referrals have changed during the study period. General practitioners primary-care physicians were given no specific incentives for submitting specimens.

Public health policy concerning VTEC O has been driven by the circumstances surrounding outbreaks However, in Wales most cases The surveillance data, as well as providing a background against which to measure changes in incidence, have provided useful information about VTEC O infections.

The presence of blood in the stool is often used in many countries as a criterion for examining for VTEC O, yet fewer than half the Welsh patients reported the presence of blood, demonstrating the value of screening all acute-phase fecal specimens.

As with other surveillance reports, the highest incidence was in children younger than 5 years of age 8.

Although fecal specimens are more likely to be available for this age group, the isolation rate is also high 6 , and person-to-person spread is most likely In Wales, person-to-person spread was the most important factor in four out of five outbreaks, including those in the children's day nurseries, which were the setting for the two largest outbreaks.

Continued surveillance for VTEC O will provide timely reporting of cases and detection and containment of outbreaks.

Ongoing surveillance over the last 9 years in Wales has provided valuable information about VTEC O infections and demonstrated the wide range of associated clinical illness.

Chalmers is a senior scientist with the U. She has a research background in veterinary microbiology and protozoology and current interests in the epidemiology of occupational and food- and waterborne zoonoses.

Table of Contents — Volume 5, Number 4—August The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.

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Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition.

Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root singular Walh , plural Walha , which was itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples.

Wallonia , Wallachia and Valais and peoples e. Historically in Britain , the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain e.

Cornwall and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons e. Walworth in County Durham and Walton in West Yorkshire , [14] as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.

It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century.

Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian , Cambric and Cambria , survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh and the Welsh people.

The Cumbric language , which is thought to have been closely related to Welsh, was spoken in this area until becoming extinct around the 12th century.

This form also appears at times in literary references, as in the pseudohistorical " Historia Regum Britanniae " of Geoffrey of Monmouth , where the character of Camber is described as the eponymous King of Cymru.

Wales has been inhabited by modern humans for at least 29, years. At that time sea levels were much lower than today, and the shallower parts of what is now the North Sea were dry land.

The east coast of present-day England and the coasts of present-day Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands were connected by the former landmass known as Doggerland , forming the British Peninsula on the European mainland.

The post-glacial rise in sea level separated Wales and Ireland, forming the Irish Sea. According to John T. Koch and others, Wales in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture that also included the other Celtic nations.

The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and took 30 years to complete. Roman rule lasted over years. The campaigns of conquest are the most widely known feature of Wales during the Roman era , because of the spirited, but ultimately unsuccessful, defence of their homelands by two native tribes: Roman rule in Wales was a military occupation, save for the southern coastal region of south Wales , east of the Gower Peninsula , where there is a legacy of Romanisation.

Both Caerwent and Carmarthen , also in southern Wales, became Roman civitates. The Romans used their engineering technology to extract large amounts of gold , copper and lead , as well as modest amounts of some other metals such as zinc and silver.

Although Latin became the official language of Wales, the people tended to continue to speak in Brythonic. While Romanisation was far from complete, the upper classes of Wales began to consider themselves Roman, particularly after the ruling of that granted Roman citizenship to all free men throughout the Empire.

Early historians, including the 6th-century cleric Gildas , have noted as a significant point in Welsh history, [40] as it is stated in literature as the foundation point of several medieval royal dynasties.

In that year the Roman general Magnus Maximus , or Macsen Wledig, stripped all of western and northern Britain of troops and senior administrators, to launch a successful bid for imperial power; continuing to rule Britain from Gaul as emperor.

Having left with the troops and Roman administrators, and planning to continue as the ruler of Britain in the future, his practical course was to transfer local authority to local rulers.

The earliest Welsh genealogies give Maximus the role of founding father for several royal dynasties, including those of Powys and Gwent.

The year period following the collapse of Roman rule is the most difficult to interpret in the history of Wales.

Before extensive studies of the distribution of R1b Y-DNA subclades , some previously maintained that native Britons were displaced by the invaders.

With the loss of the lowlands, England's kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria , and later Wessex , wrestled with Powys, Gwent and Gwynedd to define the frontier between the two peoples.

Having lost much of what is now the West Midlands to Mercia in the 6th and early 7th centuries, a resurgent late-7th-century Powys checked Mercian advances.

Aethelbald of Mercia , looking to defend recently acquired lands, had built Wat's Dyke. According to John Davies , this endeavour may have been with the agreement of Powys king Elisedd ap Gwylog , as this boundary, extending north from the valley of the River Severn to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys.

Davies wrote of Cyril Fox 's study of Offa's Dyke: On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh; near Rhiwabon , it was designed to ensure that Cadell ap Brochwel retained possession of the Fortress of Penygadden.

By the 8th century, the eastern borders with the Anglo-Saxons had broadly been set. The southern and eastern parts of Great Britain lost to English settlement became known in Welsh as Lloegyr Modern Welsh Lloegr , which may have referred to the kingdom of Mercia originally and which came to refer to England as a whole.

From onwards, a series of dynastic marriages led to Rhodri Mawr 's r. His sons, in turn, would found three principal dynasties Aberffraw for Gwynedd, Dinefwr for Deheubarth and Mathrafal for Powys.

Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda r. Maredudd's great-grandson through his daughter Princess Angharad Gruffydd ap Llywelyn r.

Historian John Davies states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales Thus, from about until his death in , the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.

For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor. Within four years of the Battle of Hastings , England had been completely subjugated by the Normans.

The frontier region, and any English-held lordships in Wales, became known as Marchia Wallie , the Welsh Marches , in which the Marcher Lords were subject to neither English nor Welsh law.

Owain Gwynedd's grandson Llywelyn Fawr the Great, — , wrested concessions [ which? With Llywelyn's death and his brother prince Dafydd 's execution, the few remaining Welsh lords did homage for their lands to Edward I.

The English interpretation of the treason of Llywelyn was that his fiefdom had escheated to the king. The king ruled directly in two areas: The existing royal lordships of Montgomery and Builth remained unchanged, [68] and the remainder of Wales was still controlled by the marcher lords.

To help maintain his dominance, Edward constructed a series of great stone castles: Beaumaris , Caernarfon and Conwy.

But the rebellion failed, and Owain went into hiding in ; peace was essentially restored in Wales by The last remnants of Celtic-tradition Welsh law were abolished and replaced by English law by the Laws in Wales Acts and Prior to the British Industrial Revolution , which saw a rapid economic expansion between and , there were signs of small-scale industries scattered throughout Wales.

With access to local coal deposits and a harbour that could take advantage of Cornwall's copper mines and the copper deposits being extracted from the largest copper mine in the world at Parys Mountain on Anglesey, Swansea developed into the world's major centre for non-ferrous metal smelting in the 19th century.

In the late 18th century, slate quarrying began to expand rapidly, most notably in north Wales. The Penrhyn Quarry , opened in by Richard Pennant , was employing 15, men by the late 19th century, [77] and along with Dinorwic Quarry , it dominated the Welsh slate trade.

Although slate quarrying has been described as 'the most Welsh of Welsh industries', [78] it is coal mining which has become the single industry synonymous with Wales and its people.

Initially, coal seams were exploited to provide energy for local metal industries but, with the opening of canal systems and later the railways, Welsh coal mining saw a boom in its demand.

By its height in , Wales was producing almost 61 million tons of coal. As well as in south Wales, there was also a significant coalfield in the north-east of the country, particularly around Wrexham.

Historian Kenneth Morgan described Wales on the eve of the First World War as a "relatively placid, self-confident and successful nation".

Output from the coalfields continued to increase, with the Rhondda Valley recording a peak of 9. A total of , Welshmen served in the war, representing The first quarter of the 20th century also saw a shift in the political landscape of Wales.

Since , the Liberal Party had held a parliamentary majority in Wales and, following the general election of , only one non-Liberal Member of Parliament, Keir Hardie of Merthyr Tydfil , represented a Welsh constituency at Westminster.

After economic growth in the first two decades of the 20th century, Wales' staple industries endured a prolonged slump from the early s to the late s, leading to widespread unemployment and poverty in the south Wales valleys.

The 20th century saw a revival in Welsh national feeling. Plaid Cymru was formed in , seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK.

Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg The Welsh Language Society was formed in , in response to long-held fears that the language might soon die out. By the end of the s, the regional policy of bringing businesses into disadvantaged areas of Wales through financial incentives had proven very successful in diversifying the industrial economy.

It was believed that the foundations for stable economic growth had been firmly established in Wales during this period; but this view was shown to be wildly optimistic after the recession of the early s saw the collapse of much of the manufacturing base that had been built over the preceding forty years.

The governments of the United Kingdom and of Wales almost invariably define Wales as a country. Although we are joined with England by land, and we are part of Great Britain, Wales is a country in its own right.

However, the Prince of Wales has no constitutional role in modern Wales. But he does not have a role in the governance of Wales, even though his title might suggest that he does.

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Wales held a referendum in and chose to establish a form of self-government.

The consequent process of devolution began with the Government of Wales Act , which created the National Assembly for Wales Welsh: Members AMs ACau are elected for four-year terms under an additional member system.

Forty of the AMs represent geographical constituencies , elected under the First Past the Post system. The remaining 20 AMs represent five electoral regions , each including between seven and nine constituencies, using the d'Hondt method of proportional representation.

Labour remained the largest Assembly party following the election , winning 26 of the 60 seats. Under the 'One Wales' agreement, a referendum on giving the Welsh assembly full law-making powers was promised "as soon as practicable, at or before the end of the assembly term in " and both parties have agreed "in good faith to campaign for a successful outcome to such a referendum".

Welsh Labour remained the largest party in the Assembly following the National Assembly for Wales election, , winning 30 of the 60 seats. Other parties represented in the assembly were the Welsh Conservatives the loyal opposition with 14 seats, Plaid Cymru who have 11 seats and the Welsh Liberal Democrats with five seats.

Carwyn Jones remained First Minister following the election, this time leading a Welsh Labour ministerial team.

After the May election, Labour continues to form the largest group in the Assembly, with 29 AMs. The twenty areas of responsibility devolved to the Welsh Government, known as "subjects", include agriculture, economic development, education, health, housing, local government, social services, tourism, transport and the Welsh language.

The GoWA allows for the Assembly to gain primary lawmaking powers on a more extensive range of matters within the same devolved areas if approved in a referendum.

A referendum on extending the law-making powers of the National Assembly was accordingly held on 3 March It asked the question: Consequently, the Assembly is now empowered to make laws, known as Acts of the Assembly , on all matters in the subject areas, without needing the UK Parliament's agreement.

Nevertheless, the Welsh Assembly has deployed their own envoy to America, primarily to promote Wales-specific business interests. For the purposes of local government, Wales has been divided into 22 council areas since These "principal areas" [] are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environment and roads services.

Wales has six cities. By tradition, Welsh Law was compiled during an assembly held at Whitland around by Hywel Dda , king of most of Wales between and his death in The 'law of Hywel Dda' Welsh: Cyfraith Hywel , as it became known, codified the previously existing folk laws and legal customs that had evolved in Wales over centuries.

Welsh Law emphasised the payment of compensation for a crime to the victim, or the victim's kin, rather than punishment by the ruler.

English law has been the legal system of England and Wales since , [] although there is now a growing body of contemporary Welsh law following Welsh devolution.

English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive.

The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases.

The Senior Courts of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. Minor cases are heard by the Magistrates' Courts or the County Court.

From that point, Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single jurisdiction of England and Wales.

The Welsh Assembly has the authority to draft and approve laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales. Under powers approved by a referendum held in March , it is empowered to pass primary legislation known as Acts of the Assembly in relation to twenty subjects listed in the Government of Wales Act such as health and education.

Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Government can then also enact more specific secondary legislation. Wales has no women's prisons; female inmates are imprisoned in England.

Wales is a generally mountainous country on the western side of central southern Great Britain. Much of Wales' diverse landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions.

The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest outside the s is Aran Fawddwy , at metres 2, feet , in the south of Snowdonia.

The highest point being Pumlumon at metres 2, feet. Wales has three national parks: Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and Pembrokeshire Coast.

Forty two percent of the coastline of south and west Wales is designated as Heritage Coast , with 13 specific designated strips of coastline maintained by Natural Resources Wales successor body to the Countryside Council for Wales.

On the night of 25 October , over ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales when a hurricane blew in from the Atlantic. The first border between Wales and England was zonal, apart from around the River Wye, which was the first accepted boundary.

The Seven Wonders of Wales is a list in doggerel verse of seven geographic and cultural landmarks in Wales probably composed in the late 18th century under the influence of tourism from England.

Snowdon the highest mountain , the Gresford bells the peal of bells in the medieval church of All Saints at Gresford , the Llangollen bridge built in over the River Dee , St Winefride's Well a pilgrimage site at Holywell in Flintshire , the Wrexham Wrecsam steeple 16th-century tower of St Giles' Church, Wrexham , the Overton yew trees ancient yew trees in the churchyard of St.

The earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian , takes its name from the Cambrian Mountains , where geologists first identified Cambrian remnants.

The older rocks underlying the Cambrian rocks in Wales lacked fossils which could be used to differentiate their various groups and were referred to as Pre-cambrian.

In the midth century, two prominent geologists, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick who first proposed the name of the Cambrian period , independently used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology.

The next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician and Silurian , were named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area based on Murchison's and Sedgwick's work.

Wales lies within the north temperate zone. It has a changeable, maritime climate and is one of the wettest countries in Europe.

Average annual coastal temperatures reach It becomes cooler at higher altitudes; annual temperatures decrease on average approximately 0.

The ocean current, bringing warmer water to northerly latitudes, has a similar effect on most of north-west Europe. As well as its influence on Wales' coastal areas, air warmed by the Gulf Stream blows further inland with the prevailing winds.

At low elevations, summers tend to be warm and sunny. Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing.

The sunniest time of year tends to be between May and August. The south-western coast is the sunniest part of Wales, averaging over hours of sunshine annually.

Wales' sunniest town is Tenby , Pembrokeshire. The dullest time of year tends to be between November and January. The least sunny areas are the mountains, some parts of which average less than hours of sunshine annually.

Coastal areas are the windiest, gales occur most often during winter, on average between 15 and 30 days each year, depending on location.

Inland, gales average fewer than six days annually. Rainfall patterns show significant variation. Snow falls several times each winter in inland areas but is relatively uncommon around the coast.

Wales' wildlife is typical of Britain with several distinctions. Because of its long coastline, Wales hosts a variety of seabirds.

The coasts and surrounding islands are home to colonies of gannets , Manx shearwater , puffins , kittiwakes , shags and razorbills. The larger Welsh mammals died out during the Norman period, including the brown bear, wolf and the wildcat.

The pine marten which has had the occasional sighting, has not been officially recorded since the s. The polecat was nearly driven to extinction in Britain, but hung on in Wales and is now rapidly spreading.

Feral goats can be found in Snowdonia. The waters of south-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine animals, including basking sharks , Atlantic grey seals , leatherback turtles, dolphins , porpoises , jellyfish, crabs and lobsters.

Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion, in particular, are recognised as an area of international importance for bottlenose dolphins , and New Quay has the only summer residence of bottlenose dolphins in the whole of the UK.

River fish of note include char , eel , salmon , shad , sparling and Arctic char , whilst the Gwyniad is unique to Wales, found only in Bala Lake.

The north facing high grounds of Snowdonia support a relict pre-glacial flora including the iconic Snowdon lily — Gagea serotina — and other alpine species such as Saxifraga cespitosa , Saxifraga oppositifolia and Silene acaulis.

Wales also hosts a number of plant species not found elsewhere in the UK including the spotted rock-rose Tuberaria guttata on Anglesey and Draba aizoides [] on the Gower.

Over the last years, Wales has been transformed first from a predominantly agricultural country to an industrial, and now a post-industrial economy.

From the middle of the 19th century until the post-war era, the mining and export of coal was a dominant industry. At its peak of production in , nearly , men and women were employed in the south Wales coalfield , mining 56 million tons of coal.

In the late s and early s, Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment in the UK.

The Welsh landscape protected by three national parks and 45 Blue Flag beaches , as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas.

The pound sterling is the currency used in Wales. Numerous Welsh banks issued their own banknotes in the 19th century.

The last bank to do so closed in ; since then, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland continue to have the right to issue banknotes in their own countries, the Bank of England has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Wales.

However, Wales has not been represented on any coin minted from The A55 expressway has a similar role along the north Wales coast, connecting Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire.

It also links to north-west England, principally Chester. The main north-south Wales link is the A , which runs from Cardiff to Llandudno.

Cardiff Airport is the only large and international airport in Wales. Other internal flights operate to northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

The Welsh Government manages those parts of the British railway network within Wales, through the Transport for Wales Rail train operating company.

Cardiff Central is Wales' busiest railway station, with over four times as much passenger traffic as any other station in Wales.

Beeching cuts in the s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel connecting with the Irish Sea ports for ferries to Ireland.

All trains in Wales are diesel-powered since no lines have been electrified. Wales has four commercial ferry ports.

Regular ferry services to Ireland operate from Holyhead , Pembroke and Fishguard. The Swansea to Cork service, cancelled in , was reinstated in March , but has been withdrawn again in A distinct education system has developed in Wales.

The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such as Ruthin , Brecon and Cowbridge. At the end of the day, the wearer of the "not" would be beaten.

The University College of Wales opened in Aberystwyth in Cardiff and Bangor followed, and the three colleges came together in to form the University of Wales.

The Welsh Department for the Board of Education followed in , which gave Wales its first significant educational devolution.

In —, there were 1, maintained schools in Wales. Historically, Wales was served by smaller 'cottage' hospitals, built as voluntary institutions.

A History of Wales. The population of Wales doubled from , in to 1,, in and had reached 2,, by Most of the increase came in the coal mining districts, especially Glamorganshire , which grew from 71, in to , in and 1,, in However, there was also large-scale migration into Wales during the Industrial Revolution.

The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of other ethnic groups, [] [] including Italians , who migrated to South Wales.

Many of these self-identify as Welsh. The census showed Wales' population to be 3,,, the highest in its history. The UK census was criticised in Wales for not offering 'Welsh' as an option to describe respondents' national identity.

Respondents were instructed to "tick all that apply" from a list of options that included Welsh. The outcome was that No Welsh national identity was indicated by The proportion giving their sole national identity as British was No British national identity was indicated by The census showed Wales to be less ethnically diverse than any region of England: The lowest proportion of White British The proportion born in Wales varies across the country, with the highest percentages in the south Wales valleys and the lowest in mid Wales and parts of the north-east.

The total fertility rate TFR in Wales was 1. In his work Archaeologia Britannica Edward Lhuyd , keeper of the Ashmolean Museum , noted the similarity between the two Celtic language families: He argued that the Brythonic languages originated in Gaul France and that the Goidelic languages originated in the Iberian Peninsula.

Lhuyd concluded that as the languages had been of Celtic origin, the people who spoke those languages were Celts. According to a more recent hypothesis, also widely embraced today, Goidelic and Brythonic languages, collectively known as Insular Celtic languages , evolved together for some time separately from Continental Celtic languages such as Gaulish and Celtiberian.

From the 18th century, the peoples of Brittany , Cornwall , Ireland , Isle of Man , Scotland and Wales were known increasingly as Celts, and they are regarded as the modern Celtic nations today.

The Bible translations into Welsh helped to maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The Welsh Language Act and the Government of Wales Act provide that the English and Welsh languages be treated on a basis of equality, and both are used as working languages within the National Assembly.

Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales and is known by various terms, though none is recognised by professional linguists.

It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh. According to John Davies, Wenglish has "been the object of far greater prejudice than anything suffered by Welsh".

The Census showed , people, Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where place names differ in the two languages, both versions are used e.

Under new regulations that came into force in , the Welsh Language Commissioner requires local authorities and Welsh Government to ensure that all new or renewed road signs that use both languages to feature the Welsh language first.

During the 20th century, a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than Welsh or English, such as Bengali or Cantonese , established themselves in Wales as a result of immigration.

The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with The Presbyterian Church of Wales was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Wales, with 24, 0.

There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs , mainly in the south Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion.

The remnants of the native Celtic mythology of the pre-Christian Britons was passed down orally, in much-altered form, by the cynfeirdd the early poets.

Wales can claim one of the oldest unbroken literary traditions in Europe. The Poets of the Princes were professional poets who composed eulogies and elegies to the Welsh princes while the Poets of the Gentry were a school of poets that favoured the cywydd metre.

Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits.

Major developments in 19th-century Welsh literature include Lady Charlotte Guest's translation of the Mabinogion, one of the most important medieval Welsh prose tales of Celtic mythology, into English.

The 20th century experienced an important shift away from the stilted and long-winded Victorian Welsh prose, with Thomas Gwynn Jones leading the way with his work Ymadawiad Arthur.

Though the inter-war period is dominated by Saunders Lewis , for his political and reactionary views as much as his plays, poetry and criticism.

Thomas was one of the most notable and popular Welsh writers of the 20th century and one of the most innovative poets of his time.

The attitude of the post-war generation of Welsh writers in English towards Wales differs from the previous generation, in that they were more sympathetic to Welsh nationalism and to the Welsh language.

The change can be linked to the nationalist fervour generated by Saunders Lewis and the burning of the Bombing School on the Lleyn Peninsula in , along with a sense of crisis generated by World War II.

Thomas — was the most important figure throughout the second half of the twentieth century. While he "did not learn the Welsh language until he was 30 and wrote all his poems in English", [] he wanted the Welsh language to be made the first language of Wales, and the official policy of bilingualism abolished.

The major novelist in the second half of the twentieth century was Emyr Humphreys Born near Abergavenny , Williams continued the earlier tradition of writing from a left-wing perspective on the Welsh industrial scene in his trilogy " Border Country " , "Second Generation" , and "The Fight for Manod" He also enjoyed a reputation as a cultural historian.

The National Museum [of] Wales was founded by royal charter in and is now a Welsh Government sponsored body.

In April , the attractions attached to the National Museum were granted free entry by the Assembly, and this action saw the visitor numbers to the sites increase during — by Aberystwyth is home to the National Library of Wales , which houses some of the most important collections in Wales, including the Sir John Williams Collection and the Shirburn Castle collection.

Many works of Celtic art have been found in Wales. A number of illuminated manuscripts from Wales survive, of which the 8th-century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels are the most notable.

The 11th-century Ricemarch Psalter now in Dublin is certainly Welsh, made in St David's , and shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence.

The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16th—18th centuries tended to leave the country to work, many of them moving to London or Italy.

Richard Wilson —82 is arguably the first major British landscapist. Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London.

By the late 18th century, the popularity of landscape art grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland.

Artists from outside Wales were also drawn to paint Welsh scenery, at first because of the Celtic Revival. Then in the early 19th century, the Napoleonic Wars preventing the Grand Tour to continental Europe, travel through Wales came to be considered more accessible.

An Act of Parliament in provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom and the Cardiff School of Art opened in Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but Betws-y-Coed became a popular centre for artists and its artists' colony helped form the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art in Christopher Williams , whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London.

Stephens and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists based respectively in the United States and France.

Many Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe. However, the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world.

Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff and even after moving to London. He was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism.

The Kardomah Gang was an intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes.

South Wales had several notable potteries , one of the first important sites being the Ewenny Pottery in Bridgend , which began producing earthenware in the 17th century.

It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in George which then represented the Kingdom of England and Wales.

The daffodil and the leek are both symbols of Wales. The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd George.

The red kite is a national symbol of Welsh wildlife. The Prince of Wales' heraldic badge is also sometimes used to symbolise Wales.

The badge, known as the Prince of Wales's feathers , consists of three white feathers emerging from a gold coronet. A ribbon below the coronet bears the German motto Ich dien I serve.

Several Welsh representative teams, including the Welsh rugby union, and Welsh regiments in the British Army the Royal Welsh , for example use the badge or a stylised version of it.

The Prince of Wales has claimed that only he has the authority to use the symbol. Land of My Fathers is the National Anthem of Wales, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Wales national team as well as the opening of the Welsh Assembly and other official occasions.

More than 50 national governing bodies regulate and organise their sports in Wales. Although football has traditionally been the more popular sport in north Wales , rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness.

The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in were replaced in by the four regions: Cardiff Blues , Dragons , Ospreys and Scarlets.

Wales has had its own football league , the Welsh Premier League , since Rugby league in Wales dates back to The Crusaders competed in the top level Super League competition from — A professional Welsh League existed from to Wales has produced several world-class participants of individual sports including snooker players Ray Reardon , Terry Griffiths , Mark Williams and Matthew Stevens.

Wales also has a tradition of producing world-class boxers. Wales has hosted several international sporting events. All Welsh television broadcasts are digital.

The last of the analogue transmitters ceased broadcasts in April , and Wales became the UK's first digital nation. BBC Cymru Wales is the national broadcaster.

Its output was mostly Welsh-language at peak hours but shared English-language content with Channel 4 at other times.

Since the digital switchover in April , the channel has broadcast exclusively in Welsh. Their remaining output is commissioned from ITV and independent producers.

Several regional radio stations broadcast in Welsh: Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers available throughout Britain, unlike in Scotland where many newspapers have rebranded into Scottish-based titles.

The Western Mail is Wales' only national daily newspaper. Magazines published in Welsh and English cover general and specialist subjects.

Cambria , a Welsh affairs magazine published bi-monthly in English, has subscribers in over 30 countries. Although both beef and dairy cattle are raised widely, especially in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is more well known for its sheep farming and thus lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking.

Traditional dishes include laverbread made from laver Porphyra umbilicalis , an edible seaweed ; bara brith fruit bread ; cawl a lamb stew ; cawl cennin leek soup ; Welsh cakes ; and Welsh lamb.

Cockles are sometimes served as a traditional breakfast with bacon and laverbread. Although Wales has its own traditional food and has absorbed much of the cuisine of England, Welsh diets now owe more to the countries of India , China and the United States.

Wales is often referred to as "the land of song", [] and is notable for its harpists, male choirs, and solo artists. The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the annual National Eisteddfod.

The Llangollen International Eisteddfod echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform.

Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by a myriad of societies. The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes.

Traditional instruments of Wales include telyn deires triple harp , fiddle, crwth , pibgorn hornpipe and other instruments.

Popular bands that emerged from Wales include the Beatles-nurtured power pop group Badfinger in the s, Man and Budgie in the s and the Alarm in the s.

Many groups emerged during the s, led by Manic Street Preachers , followed by the likes of the Stereophonics and Feeder ; notable during this period were Catatonia , Super Furry Animals , and Gorky's Zygotic Mynci who gained popular success as dual-language artists.

Male voice choirs emerged in the 19th century and continue today. Originally these choirs where formed as the tenor and bass sections of chapel choirs, and embraced the popular secular hymns of the day.

Along with the playhouses, there existed mobile companies at visiting fairs, though from most of these travelling theatres settled, purchasing theatres to perform in.

Drama in the early 20th century thrived, but the country failed to produce a Welsh National Theatre company. After the Second World War the substantial number of amateur companies that had existed before the outbreak of hostilities reduced by two-thirds.

Other Welsh actors to have crossed the Atlantic more recently include: Dancing is a popular pastime in Wales; traditional dances include folk dancing and clog dancing.

The first mention of dancing in Wales is in a 12th-century account by Giraldus Cambrensis , but by the 19th century traditional dance had all but died out; this is attributed to the influence of Nonconformists and their belief that any physical diversion was worthless and satanic, especially mixed dancing.

The Welsh Folk Dance Society was founded in ; [] it supports a network of national amateur dance teams and publishes support material.

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It is also a good base for accessing North Wales both mountain and coast. Cardigan is a very picturesque area of Wales, especially around the river Teifi estuary ideal for walks.

Cardigan town has lots of choice for dining out, and pubs to satisfy all tastes. Especially recommend The Cliff hotel and restaurant for a meal, or just a drink while relaxing with great views over Cardigan bay, about 2 miles from town centre.

Clean town with good wide promenade. Plenty of local shops to look round and a variety of restaurants. Good nightlife with live entertainment. Hotels to suit every budget.

Also, plenty of nearby attractions within easy driving distance. A good place to use as a base to explore North Wales. The George Borrow Hotel is situated in a beautiful area of Wales with a stunning and dramatic landscape.

We spotted Red Kites soaring on the thermals from our bedroom window! Well situated to visit the lovely historic towns of Mid Wales.

The Hotel is on the coaching road to Aberystwyth where we spent a wonderful sunny day by the sea in this traditional seaside town. The beach is a mix of sand and pebbles.

The shops are ok, some seem to close early. Llandudno is well situated for exploring North Wales and Snowdonia.

The Llandudno and Conwy area is a great place for long weekend or longer if exploring North Wales.

Stunning scenery in the area Llandudno has kept most of their Victorian architecture a great plus for the town. Fresh fish is a must to eat here.

Loved it we will be back. The hotel was almost fully booked as we could tell from the car park as it was the weekend of the WRC Wales.

The staff member male at the reception was friendly and very apologetic for the lack of car parking spaces, but it was to b expected so we didn't mind.

The rooms were lovely, much more than what we expected! Bath room looked like it had been newly refurbished and the room itself was in very good condition.

We had 2 rooms next to each other over looking the sea, the sunrise was sensational! The apartment was very clean, and decorated in a modern, fresh approach.

The lady that showed us to the apartment was very friendly and gave us all the information we needed. The apartment had all the facilities needed and the location was convenient for us, as I am somewhat local to the area, and we used the apartment as our base for our day trips around South Wales.

Reserved parking spot was great and no hassle As good if not better than expected, very good service nothing to much trouble.

Carol-Lyn lady dragon Ian and the team worked well to make our stay pure relaxation. Will most definitely make a return visit.

To further enjoy Llandudno and north Wales. The free parking at the rear of the hotel was a real bonus. Our room was comfortable and cosy with Seaview.

WiFi was still good in the room. Breakfast was delicious cooked and served to our specifications. Nice clean hotel with friendly staff. Stayed during the weekend of the Saundersfoot tri and Ironman Wales, so the hotel was quiet in the evenings as most people were having early nights, which means, if you prefer it quiet, this would be in the 'like' box, if you prefer things lively, this should be in the 'didn't like' box, but suited us as we were participating in the event.

Excellent value - the apartment was very clean. The decor was stark and the bedside light not working. The area was not too salubrious at night with on-street parking.

In hindsight, I would have preferred a manned hotel as it was a bit spooky using the codes to enter. However, this was superb value for money and we used it as a overnight stop to North Wales so it was fit for purpose.

The hostel has got everything I need, well equipped share kitchen, en-suite dorm room, free parking, friendly staff,good breakfast and a nice observation lounge give you fantastic view.

This is the third time I stay here, will come back every year. Great place and great hosts. Easy access to my room, clean and comfy room with bathroom.

Good location and quiet place, perfect to go to Snowdon or Holyhead. Breakfast great and tasty. I can really recommend as a place to start trips around north Wales.

Thank you again for a great time. I will see Castlebank hotel again. The location was excellent. Top floor apartment within 2 minute walk to Llandudno pier and promenade.

Ideal base for exploring North Wales. On street parking free if you park a block away. Good value for money. Staff on reception friendly and helpful.

Due to some visitors staying at hotel needing to leave early for rally wales hotel offered to server breakfast earlier than usual - very good of them, unfortunately still not early enough for a 6: Location on seafront is excellent.

In a word, everything. The rooms were clean, the bed comfortable and the staff extremely friendly and helpful. A special mention for Marita.

The food was excellent with breakfasts to die for. The hotel is ideally situated for exploring the North Wales coast. This is a magnificent building which sits perfectly in one of the most beautiful areas of Wales.

The interior of this country house has been lovingly restored, to create a delightful and characterful hotel. This is a really relaxing place to stay.

Lovely hotel in a beautiful rural area. Staff were friendly polite and helpful. Our ensuite room in the main house was large and well appointed.

We had a wonderful dinner and enjoyed a drink looking over great views of Wales. I like the friendliness and helpfulness of the staff. There is a very comfortable atmosphere in the hotel and we return there every year when we come back to Wales.

You can relax as soon as you walk in the door. We loved everything about The Pier Hotel and the Promenade was just around the corner.

Sherry a staff member was excellent in every way. Highly recommend this Hotel and will be back if we get to Wales again. We visited the Albany hotel for Ironman Wales.

The owners went above and beyond to meet some of my unusual dietary requirements for the event and were so lovely. Friendly, clean and spacious accommodation , outstanding breakfast in fact the best breakfast we have every had whilst visiting west Wales other hotels.

Beautiful area in West Wales, would highly recommend for a visit. Hotel staff were very friendly an helpful. One of the best Hotels I have stayed at in the South Wales area.

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Register - opens a dialog box. Sign in - opens a dialog box. Having finished second to Czechoslovakia in qualifying Group 4, the golden generation of Welsh football managed by Jimmy Murphy seemed to have missed out on qualification, but the politics of the Middle East subsequently intervened.

Belgium were drawn out first but refused to participate, and so then Wales was drawn out and awarded a two-legged play-off match against Israel with a place in Sweden for the winners.

The strong Welsh squad made their mark in Sweden, drawing all the matches in their group against Hungary , Mexico and Sweden before defeating Hungary in a play-off match to reach the quarter-finals against Brazil.

However, Wales' chances of victory against Brazil were hampered by an injury to John Charles that ruled him out of the match.

However, in , the team managed by Mike Smith reached the last eight of the competition, having finished top of qualifying Group 2 ahead of Hungary, Austria and Luxembourg.

Prior to , only four countries qualified for the finals tournament, and Wales were drawn to play against the winners of Group 3— Yugoslavia —on a home and away basis match.

Wales lost the first leg 2—0 in Zagreb and were eliminated from the competition following a 1—1 draw in a bad-tempered return leg at Ninian Park, Cardiff, which was marred by crowd trouble.

This initially led to Wales' ban from the tournament. However, the ban was reduced on appeal to a four-year ban on qualifying matches being played within miles of Cardiff.

Yugoslavia went on to finish third in the tournament. The following year, Wales defeated England on English soil for the first time in 42 years and secured their only victory to date at Wembley Stadium thanks to a Leighton James penalty.

Mark Hughes marked his debut for Wales by scoring the only goal of the match as England were defeated once again in The following season, Hughes was again on target, scoring a wonder goal as Wales thrashed Spain 3—0 at The Racecourse during qualification for the World Cup.

Wales had to win their last match at home to Scotland to be guaranteed at least a play-off, but were held to a 1—1 draw in a match marred by the death of Scotland manager Jock Stein , who collapsed from a heart attack at the end of the match.

Again Wales came close to qualifying for a major championship when they came within a whisker of reaching the World Cup.

Needing to win the final match of the group at home to Romania , Paul Bodin missed a penalty when the scores were level 1—1; the miss was immediately followed by Romania taking the lead and going on to win 2—1.

Following the failure to qualify, Yorath's contract as manager of the national side was not renewed by the FAW, and John Toshack —the then-manager of Real Sociedad —was appointed on a part-time basis.

However, Toshack resigned after just one match—a 3—1 defeat to Norway —citing problems with the FAW as his reason for leaving, although he was sure to have been shocked at being booed off the pitch at Ninian Park by the Welsh fans still reeling from the dismissal of Yorath.

Gould's time in charge of Wales is seen as a dark period by Welsh football fans. His questionable tactics and public fallings-out with players Nathan Blake , [7] Robbie Savage [8] and Mark Hughes [ citation needed ] , coupled with embarrassing defeats to club side Leyton Orient and a 7—1 thrashing by the Netherlands in did not make him a popular figure within Wales.

Gould finally resigned following a 4—0 defeat to Italy in , and the FAW turned to two legends of the national team, Neville Southall and Mark Hughes, to take temporary charge of the match against Denmark four days later, with Hughes later being appointed on a permanent basis.

Under Mark Hughes, Wales came close to qualifying for a place at Euro in Portugal, being narrowly defeated by Russia in the play-offs.

However, the defeat was not without its controversy, as Russian midfielder Yegor Titov tested positive for the use of a banned substance after the first qualifying leg, [9] a scoreless draw in Moscow.

Notwithstanding, FIFA opted not to take action against the Football Union of Russia other than instructing them not to field Titov again, and the Russian team went on to defeat Wales 1—0 in Cardiff to qualify for the final tournament.

On 12 November , John Toshack was appointed manager for the second time. The team's performance was disappointing, finishing fifth in the group with expected defeat at home to Germany yet an unexpected draw away, a loss away and a goalless draw at home to the Czech Republic, a loss away and 2—2 draw at home to the Republic of Ireland, a 3—0 home win and uninspiring 2—1 away win against minnows San Marino, a 3—1 home win and 3—1 away defeat against Cyprus, and a spectacularly mixed performance against Slovakia, losing 5—1 at home and winning 5—2 away.

However, better performances towards the end of the competition by a team containing—of necessity because of injuries and suspensions of senior players—no fewer than five players who were eligible for selection for the under squad was viewed as a hopeful sign of future progress for the team.

However, they lost their next match against Russia in Moscow, 2—1, after Joe Ledley had briefly drawn them level.

The qualifying campaign showed signs of promise when the team managed to prevent Germany from scoring for 74 minutes of their match in Mönchengladbach , although Wales ultimately lost 1—0.

Two 2—0 home defeats by Finland and Germany in Spring effectively put paid to Wales' hopes of qualification.

Wales lost 1—0 away to Montenegro in their opening match and, on 9 September , John Toshack stood down as manager after being disappointed at previous results in against Croatia and the opening Euro qualifier.

Wales under coach Brian Flynn took over from Toshack as caretaker manager with a view to a possible permanent appointment, but a 1—0 home defeat to Bulgaria and 4—1 away loss to Switzerland prompted the FAW to pass over Flynn.

Gary Speed was appointed as permanent manager on 14 December Speed's first match as manager was 8 February in the inaugural Nations Cup , which the Republic of Ireland won 3—0.

This was followed by a 2—1 home win against Montenegro, a 1—0 away loss to England, a 2—0 home win against Switzerland and a 1—0 away win against Bulgaria.

A 4—1 home win in a friendly match against Norway on 12 November proved to be Speed's last match in charge of Wales. The match was a culmination of Speed's efforts which led Wales to receive the unofficial award for biggest mover of in the FIFA rankings.

Due to London's successful bid for the Summer Olympics , a Great Britain team would qualify as of right of being the host nation.

However, the FAW stressed it was strongly against the proposal. Chris Coleman was appointed Wales team manager on 19 January They lost their first match 2—0, against Belgium.

Their second match, against Serbia, was even worse, finishing 6—1, Wales's worst defeat since the 7—1 reversal to the Netherlands in In July , following four wins and two draws, Wales topped the group.

In September , England dropped to tenth in the FIFA rankings, making Wales—in the ninth position—the highest ranked British team for the first time in its history.

On 10 October , Wales lost 2—0 to Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, Wales' qualification for Euro was confirmed after Cyprus defeated Israel that same evening.

On their Euro debut, on 11 June against Slovakia at the Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux , Gareth Bale scored direct from a free-kick to give Wales a 1—0 lead, and Hal Robson-Kanu scored the winner in a 2—1 victory that put them top of the group.

This victory advanced Wales to their first major tournament semi-final and also made them the first British nation to advance to the semi-finals of a major tournament since England did so at Euro as hosts.

The first half of the semi-final against Portugal in Lyon went goalless, but goals from Cristiano Ronaldo and Nani early in the second half saw Portugal claim a 2—0 win.

In September , Wales opened their World Cup qualification campaign with a comfortable 4—0 home win against Moldova.

That run came to an end with a 1—0 home victory over Austria on 2 September , followed by a 2—0 away victory against Moldova on 5 September and a 1—0 away win over Georgia on 6 October.

Wales finished third in their group due to a 1—0 loss to the Republic of Ireland on 9 October and failed to qualify for the final tournament in Russia.

Chris Coleman resigned as Wales team manager on 17 November and was appointed team manager at Sunderland. After nearly two months of managerial vacancy, former Wales national player Ryan Giggs was named Wales' new manager.

Giggs, who signed a four-year contract, would be charged with leading Wales' preparations for the start of the —19 UEFA Nations League in September and qualification for Euro From —, Wales played most of their home matches at the Millennium Stadium , Cardiff.

Wales' first football match at the Millennium Stadium was against Finland on 29 March The Finns won the match 2—1, with Jari Litmanen becoming the first player to score a goal at the stadium.

Ryan Giggs scored Wales' goal in the match, becoming the first Welshman to score at the stadium. This led to calls from fans and players for international matches to be held at smaller stadiums.

For the Euro qualifying campaign, the FAW decided Wales would play all of their home matches at either the Cardiff City Stadium or the Liberty Stadium, with the exception of the home tie against England, which was played at the Millennium Stadium.

Cardiff City Stadium's capacity was increased to 33, in and all home matches for Euro qualifying were scheduled at the stadium and Wales subsequently qualified for the finals tournament in France.

Both of the team's home UEFA Nations League home games are scheduled to take place at the Cardiff City Stadium, together with all home games in the Euro qualifying campaign, however a friendly against Spain will take place at the Principality Stadium in October which will be Wales' first match at the stadium in just over seven-and-a-half years.

Wales present a Golden Cap to players attaining 50 international caps. List of Wales international footballers.

Live television broadcast rights are held by S4C Welsh language commentary and Sky Sports English language commentary until The primary kit has long been all-red.

The crest of the Football Association of Wales features a Welsh Dragon on a white shield surrounded by 11 daffodils on a green background, and, since , the Welsh-language motto Gorau Chwarae Cyd Chwarae "The best play is team play".

Prior to the Welsh team was chosen by a panel of selectors with the team captain fulfilling the role of coach. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the men's senior team. For the women's senior team, see Wales women's national football team. For other national football teams, see Wales football team.

Wales national football team home stadium. Guangxi Sports Center Attendance: Mohd Amirul Izwan Yaacob Malaysia. Salman Ahmad Falahi Qatar.

Cardiff City Stadium Referee:

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